Building a Sustainable Future: The Role of Blockchain in Sustainability

01.02.2024 08:00 153 times read Reading time: 16 minutes 0 Comments

Topic in short form

  • Blockchain technology enhances transparency and traceability in sustainable supply chains.
  • Smart contracts on blockchain platforms can automate and enforce sustainable practices.
  • Decentralized energy grids powered by blockchain can promote renewable energy adoption.

Was this information helpful to you?

 Yes  No

Understanding Blockchain Sustainability

As we delve into the concept of blockchain sustainability, it's crucial to comprehend how this technology intersects with eco-friendly initiatives. Blockchain sustainability is about harnessing the immense potential of blockchain technology to support a more sustainable future, with a particular focus on reducing environmental impacts and fostering transparent, efficient systems that contribute to conservation and responsible resource management.

At its core, blockchain is a decentralized ledger that maintains transactions across multiple computers. This ensures that the records cannot be altered retroactively, which provides a high level of transparency and security. However, the sustainability of a blockchain network depends significantly on the underlying protocols and consensus mechanisms it deploys. These mechanisms define how transactions are verified and added to the blockchain, with each having distinct implications for energy consumption and environmental stewardship.

The Best Mining Providers at a Glance

» Infinity Hash

From our perspective, currently the best mining provider on the market. With the community concept, you participate in a mining pool completely managed by professionals. A portion of the earnings are used for expansion and maintenance. We've never seen this solved as cleanly anywhere else.

» Hashing24

A well-known and established cloud hosting company. With a good entry point and in a good market phase, a good ROI can also be generated with some patience. Unfortunately, we see the durations as a major drawback.

For example, the Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanism, known for its high energy consumption, is being challenged by more sustainable alternatives like Proof of Stake (PoS) and Proof of Authority (PoA) that require significantly less power. This shift in protocol design is a major stride towards reducing the carbon footprint of blockchain networks. Through such innovations, blockchain could offer a robust platform for various sustainability-related applications, from tracking carbon emissions to ensuring ethical sourcing in supply chains.

Blockchain sustainability not only focuses on energy efficiency but also incorporates the longevity and adaptability of blockchain solutions. With this in mind, developers and stakeholders are continuously striving to create blockchain ecosystems that are not just environmentally friendly but also equitable and accessible, ensuring that the benefits of this technology are distributed across society. This holistic approach to blockchain sustainability is an essential step in protecting our planet for future generations while unlocking the transformative potential of this groundbreaking technology.

The Environmental Impact of Blockchain Technology

Discussing blockchain sustainability necessitates a closer look at the environmental impact of blockchain technology. Initially, when blockchain was synonymous with Bitcoin, concerns were raised regarding the intense energy demands of its PoW (Proof of Work) system. These concerns are not unfounded, as maintaining a decentralized network requires substantial computational effort and electricity.

Concerns about the energy consumption of blockchain systems have led to increased scrutiny from both the public and private sectors. High energy consumption equates to higher emissions of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, which contributes to climate change. It's crucial to understand that not all blockchain technologies are created equal when it comes to their environmental footprint. As mentioned previously, differences in consensus mechanisms play a significant role in the overall impact.

However, it's also essential to recognize that blockchain can contribute positively to environmental sustainability. Innovations within blockchain ecosystems can improve energy tracking, optimize renewable energy distribution, and enhance the transparency of sustainable practices across industries. Recognizing the dual potential of blockchain—to either contribute to or alleviate environmental challenges—is instrumental in guiding its development towards sustainable outcomes.

Consequently, the blockchain community has taken significant steps to reduce its environmental impact. Various blockchain projects now seek to leverage renewable energy sources, improve energy efficiency, and reduce overall carbon emissions. By carefully considering the environmental implications of blockchain design and operation, we can continue to explore and advance this technology's capacity for positive societal outcomes while minimizing its ecological footprint.

Pros and Cons of Blockchain for Sustainable Development

Pros Cons
Enhanced Transparency High Energy Consumption
Improved Supply Chain Management Technology Complexity
Reduced Emissions Through Smart Contracts Scalability Issues
Immutable Data for Better Traceability Potential for E-waste
Increased Efficiency and Reduced Costs Regulatory Uncertainties

Ethereum's Shift to Proof-of-Stake: A Case Study in Blockchain Sustainability

Ethereum's progression from Proof of Work (PoW) to Proof of Stake (PoS) stands as a landmark case study in the pursuit of blockchain sustainability. This transition, popularly referred to as 'The Merge', represents not only a technical upgrade but also a fundamental rethinking of how blockchain networks can operate more sustainably.

The Merge is projected to slash Ethereum's energy usage dramatically, with estimates suggesting up to a 99.95% reduction in total energy consumed. This pivotal change signifies the platform's commitment to a lower-carbon blockchain and offers a blueprint for other projects looking to enhance their sustainability credentials.

The shift to Proof of Stake also opens up a deeper conversation about the role of validators in a blockchain network. Unlike the energy-intensive mining required by PoW, PoS secures the network through a process of staking, where validators lock up a portion of their cryptocurrency as collateral to ensure the integrity of their validations. This new system does not only cut down on energy consumption but also democratizes the process of network validation.

In harnessing a more energy-efficient consensus mechanism, Ethereum is setting the stage for a new era of eco-friendly blockchain applications. The move is expected to catalyze further innovation in the space, encouraging developers and stakeholders to prioritize sustainability in their designs and operations.

PwC's Blockchain Sustainability Framework: Measuring Environmental Impact

The development of PwC's Blockchain Sustainability Framework marks a noteworthy advance in our capacity to measure and understand the environmental impact of blockchain activities. This framework provides a structured approach to evaluate factors such as energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and the potential for electronic waste.

Applying this framework allows stakeholders to assess the sustainability of blockchain projects more accurately. By providing metrics and benchmarks, organizations can gain insights into the direct and indirect environmental implications of their blockchain systems.

The importance of such an evaluative tool cannot be overstated, as it empowers businesses and developers to make informed decisions that align with environmental objectives. PwC's initiative facilitates the pursuit of sustainable best practices in blockchain implementation, reinforcing the technology's potential to support global sustainability goals.

Ultimately, the adoption of PwC's Blockchain Sustainability Framework signifies a commitment to responsible innovation. It encourages continual improvement and transparency, emphasizing the need for technologies like blockchain to integrate into a sustainable future without contributing to ecological deterioration.

Stellar Network's Approach to Carbon Neutrality

The Stellar Network has adopted a proactive stance in addressing the call for carbon neutrality within the blockchain landscape. Recognizing the urgency of climate change and environmental responsibility, Stellar has committed itself to a series of strategies aimed at minimizing its carbon footprint.

By focusing on efficiency and carbon offset initiatives, the Stellar Network has been able to significantly reduce its environmental impact. Carbon offsetting involves investment in environmental projects that are designed to compensate for the emissions produced by operations, ideally leading to a net-zero impact.

This conscientious approach emphasizes the importance of sustainability within the blockchain sector. Stellar's endeavors serve as an exemplary model for how blockchain networks can maintain operational efficiency while also striving for an environmentally sound presence.

As the industry continues to grow, Stellar's efforts highlight the possibility of merging high-tech innovation with environmental stewardship, setting an exciting precedent for future developments in the realm of blockchain sustainability.

The Four Pillars of Sustainable Development and Blockchain

In the context of sustainable development, it is crucial to consider the synergies between blockchain technology and the four pillars of sustainable development: human, social, economic, and environmental aspects. Blockchain's inherent characteristics offer unique opportunities to support and enhance these pillars.

With regard to the human pillar, blockchain can influence education and healthcare by providing secure and immutable records. For example, blockchain-based systems could store patient health records with greater privacy and reliability, or secure academic credentials for easy verification.

For the social dimension, blockchain can foster inclusivity and trust through transparent and equitable systems. Social initiatives like identity verification platforms can help reduce fraud and assist in providing services to the underprivileged who lack traditional forms of identification.

On the economic front, blockchain has the power to revolutionize traditional financial systems. By enabling peer-to-peer transactions and financial inclusivity, blockchain can offer economic empowerment by providing access to financial services for unbanked populations.

Lastly, in addressing the environmental pillar, blockchain technologies can aid in enhancing the traceability of sustainable practices, such as supply chain monitoring for ethically sourced goods, and contribute to the accountability in the use of natural resources.

Integrating blockchain across these four pillars can lead to more sustainable and resilient societies by fostering transparency, accountability, and equitable access to services. This alignment with sustainable development principles showcases blockchain's potential to contribute to a more balanced and just world.

Blockchain's Transparency: A Boon for ESG Investing

The unique attribute of transparency that blockchain technology provides is transforming Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) investing. ESG investors often face the challenge of verifying the authenticity of a company’s commitment to sustainable practices. Blockchain's immutable and transparent ledger offers a solution to this challenge, ensuring that the recorded data on environmental impact, social responsibility, and governance practices is reliable and tamper-proof.

Using blockchain, companies can provide irrefutable evidence of ESG compliance, allowing investors to make informed decisions about where they allocate their funds. The potential for real-time reporting and verification also enables a more dynamic approach to ESG investing. This innovative use of technology can build investor confidence by ensuring that sustainable practices are accurately reflected and maintained over time.

Moreover, the trust engendered by transparent practices in blockchain-supported ESG investing can lead to better outcomes for all stakeholders involved. Companies that embrace this technology for sustainability reporting place themselves at the forefront of a movement towards greater accountability and corporate responsibility.

Overall, the integration of blockchain into ESG investing exemplifies how technology can be leveraged to foster a more ethical investment landscape, underscoring the critical role of transparency in the pursuit of sustainability.

Beyond Cryptocurrency: Blockchain's Diverse Applications

Blockchain technology is frequently associated with cryptocurrency, but its potential applications extend far beyond digital currencies. The versatility of this technology allows it to impact a variety of sectors with innovative solutions.

For instance, in the supply chain management sector, blockchain provides an unparalleled level of traceability and integrity, which is paramount for confirming the authenticity of products, from food safety to luxury goods verification. By documenting every step of the supply process on a decentralized ledger, stakeholders can gain complete visibility and ensure product integrity.

In the healthcare industry, blockchain can securely manage patient data, allowing for seamless sharing of medical records among providers, which can improve patient care and reduce administrative costs. Similarly, in the real estate market, blockchain can simplify property transactions by reducing fraud and streamlining the transfer of deeds.

The technology also holds great promise for intellectual property protection and royalty distribution in the arts, where it can ensure creators are fairly compensated for their work by providing a transparent and efficient system for tracking content usage and distribution of payments.

These diverse applications of blockchain underscore its utility as a foundational technology capable of driving substantial innovation across various industries, while bolstering transparency, efficiency, and trust.

The UN's Sustainable Development Goals and Blockchain Solutions

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide a universal blueprint for peace and prosperity, encompassing a range of objectives from poverty eradication to environmental protection. Blockchain technology has emerged as a powerful tool for advancing these goals by offering innovative solutions that can accelerate their achievement.

Blockchain applications are particularly relevant for SDGs that require secure, transparent, and unalterable data management. For instance, in pursuit of Goal 1, ending poverty, blockchain can underpin financial inclusion initiatives by providing those without access to traditional banking with secure and affordable financial services.

In support of Goal 7, affordable and clean energy, blockchain can optimize the distribution of renewable energy through platforms that track energy production and consumption. Moreover, in the context of Goal 17, partnerships for the goals, blockchain enables cross-border collaboration through smart contracts, potentially reducing the time and cost associated with international agreements.

By aligning blockchain solutions with the SDGs, stakeholders can unlock new avenues for cooperation and innovation, contributing to a more sustainable and equitable global community.

Addressing the Ecological Footprint of Blockchain

The ecological footprint of blockchain has been a topic of intense discussion as the technology gains widespread adoption. The energy-intensive nature of certain blockchain operations, particularly those utilizing Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanisms, has raised concerns about their long-term sustainability and environmental impact. Efforts are underway to address these concerns and reduce the ecological footprint associated with blockchain networks.

Innovative approaches to blockchain design, including the exploration of alternative consensus mechanisms such as Proof of Stake (PoS) and Proof of Authority (PoA), are being implemented to create more energy-efficient systems. These models significantly reduce the computational power – and therefore, the energy –required to maintain and secure blockchain networks.

Additionally, the integration of renewable energy sources into blockchain infrastructure is gaining traction. By shifting to greener energy options, blockchain operations can reduce their carbon emissions and contribute to a more sustainable development of the technology.

Developers and industry leaders are also considering the lifecycle of blockchain hardware, aiming to reduce electronic waste through recycling programs and by designing longer-lasting equipment. Through these combined efforts, the blockchain community is moving towards minimizing the technology’s ecological footprint, enabling a more sustainable path forward for the industry.

The Evolution of Energy-Efficient Blockchain Architectures

The pursuit of energy-efficient blockchain architectures is at the forefront of the industry's evolution. Developers are highly invested in creating systems that not only deliver robust security and decentralization but also operate with a reduced environmental impact.

A pivotal aspect of this evolution has been the move away from energy-intensive consensus mechanisms toward alternatives that consume less power. Innovations in blockchain architecture now increasingly favor mechanisms like Proof of Stake (PoS) and Proof of Authority (PoA), which offer a more energy-conscious approach to achieving consensus on the network.

Further, advancements in network design now consider the scalability and energy implications from the outset. Layered solutions and sidechains are examples of how blockchain can handle a higher volume of transactions efficiently and sustainably. These solutions contribute to reducing the per-transaction energy cost by spreading the network's load across multiple channels.

New architectures also leverage technologies like sharding, which splits the blockchain into smaller, more manageable pieces, thereby requiring less computational power. This cumulative approach to energy efficiency ensures that blockchain is prepared to scale with demand without proportionally increasing its energy use.

Blockchain Applications for Environmental and Social Good

Blockchain technology is contributing to environmental and social advancement through a multitude of applications that solve real-world problems. These applications are reshaping industries by offering transparent, secure, and efficient solutions to pressing global issues.

A prime example of blockchain's environmental advantages is seen in the realm of sustainable resource management. Platforms utilizing blockchain can track the origin and lifecycle of products, ensuring they come from renewable sources and are produced without harming environments. This contributes to the prevention of deforestation and illegal mining practices by promoting responsible production and consumption patterns.

On the social front, blockchain can help increase access to basic services and financial empowerment. By facilitating microloans and peer-to-peer lending through secure blockchain platforms, underserved communities can access capital that would otherwise be unavailable due to traditional banking barriers.

Furthermore, blockchain can fortify the fight against corruption and fraud in charitable organizations. By tracing donations with blockchain, donors can see exactly how and where their contributions are being used, which fosters trust and encourages a culture of transparency.

In conclusion, blockchain's potential for social and environmental good is vast, encompassing everything from responsible supply chains to inclusive financial services, and offering solutions that support both people and the planet.

Comparing Proof of Work vs. Proof of Stake in Sustainability

The ongoing debate between Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS) centers on their differing approaches to consensus and, as a result, their distinct sustainability profiles. Both mechanisms serve the same purpose of validating transactions and creating new blocks in a blockchain, but they operate on fundamentally different principles that have direct implications for energy consumption and environmental impact.

PoW, the original consensus algorithm used by Bitcoin, requires miners to solve complex mathematical puzzles using computational power. This process, known as mining, demands significant electrical energy and has led to concerns about its sustainability due to the associated carbon footprint.

In contrast, PoS selects validators in proportion to their holdings of the native cryptocurrency, rather than using computational work to prove trustworthiness. This method inherently consumes less electricity as it removes the need for energy-intensive puzzle-solving, leading to a far lower environmental impact and positioning PoS as a more sustainable option for maintaining blockchain integrity.

As a result of this comparison, many new and existing blockchains are adopting or transitioning to PoS or similar consensus models to improve sustainability without compromising on security and decentralization, a move that reflects the industry's increasing consciousness of its environmental responsibilities.

The Ethereum Climate Platform: Combating Carbon Footprint

The Ethereum Climate Platform (ECP) represents a significant initiative aimed at addressing the carbon footprint associated with Ethereum's historic use of the Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanism. This platform unites various stakeholders from within the Ethereum ecosystem with the collective goal of identifying and implementing solutions to mitigate the network's environmental impact.

Within the ECP, collaborators including blockchain innovators and environmental specialists are working together to fund projects focused on carbon removal and reduction. By directly addressing the carbon emissions generated by Ethereum's previous operations, the ECP is a vital part of the broader transition toward a more sustainable blockchain infrastructure.

The platform also reflects a growing trend within the blockchain community: the acknowledgment of and action against the potential environmental costs of technological progress. By taking responsibility for its past ecological impacts and actively working to improve its carbon footprint, the Ethereum network is setting a precedent for environmental accountability in the blockchain space.

This proactive approach embodied by the Ethereum Climate Platform highlights a maturing perspective on sustainability within the industry, emphasizing not only the importance of forward-thinking energy efficiency but also the rectification of previous environmental externalities.

Blockchain's Role in Carbon Credit Markets and Climate Initiatives

Blockchain is carving out a pivotal role in carbon credit markets and various climate initiatives, heralding new levels of transparency and traceability that are essential to these environmental mechanisms. Carbon credits serve as a key tool in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, giving economic incentives for companies to lower their carbon footprint.

By harnessing blockchain technology, carbon credit transactions can be securely recorded, thus preventing fraud and double counting. This ensures that each carbon credit represents a real, quantifiable, and verifiable reduction in carbon emissions. Blockchain's immutable ledger facilitates a transparent trail from the creation to the retirement of each credit, fostering trust in the market and making it easier for businesses and regulators to track the effectiveness of these environmental assets.

Additionally, blockchain platforms are increasingly being utilized to facilitate the tokenization of carbon credits, making them more accessible and tradeable on a global scale. This innovation can democratize the market, allowing a wider range of participants to engage in carbon offsetting practices.

Moreover, the decentralized nature of blockchain perfectly aligns with the cooperative spirit required for global climate initiatives. It allows disparate parties to work in unison toward the common goal of carbon neutrality, reinforcing international efforts to mitigate climate change.

United Nations and Blockchain: Partners in Climate Action

The collaboration between the United Nations (UN) and various blockchain initiatives signals a powerful alliance in the global effort to combat climate change. Recognizing the potential of this technology, the UN has endorsed blockchain as a tool that can significantly contribute to climate action strategies.

Blockchain's inherent characteristics align well with the UN's climate goals due to its capacity for enhancing data management, securing financial transactions, and facilitating transparency. These features are particularly beneficial in monitoring and reporting on climate change initiatives, ensuring that resources are utilized effectively and progress can be tracked accurately.

Initiatives like the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have started to explore the use of blockchain to support various operations, including emissions trading and the tracking of greenhouse gas inventories. Such applications could revolutionize how climate commitments under the Paris Agreement are met and reported.

Integration of blockchain technology within UN-led climate initiatives also promotes inclusiveness and collaboration, allowing multiple stakeholders, from governments to nonprofits and private entities, to participate in a unified, transparent response to environmental challenges.

Predictions for Blockchain Sustainability in 2023

Looking to the future, there are a number of predictions for the trajectory of blockchain sustainability in the year 2023. A key forecast is the emergence of new blockchain platforms specifically designed with energy efficiency as a core principle, which aim to reduce the technology's environmental footprint even further.

An expected development is the growth of green blockchain projects that leverage renewable energy for mining and transactions, thus minimizing their reliance on fossil fuels. This initiative is likely to be boosted by increased investment and interest from both the private sector and environmentally-conscious consumers.

Another anticipation for 2023 includes the expansion of blockchain applications in the field of carbon capture and storage, biodiversity tracking, and the promotion of circular economies. These applications are believed to gain momentum due to their potential to provide dynamic and transparent methodologies for tracking and verifying sustainability efforts.

Lastly, the progression toward decentralized finance (DeFi) platforms that focus on funding sustainable development projects may also gain significant traction. These platforms could offer attractive alternatives to traditional funding models, providing a streamlined, transparent, and accessible means of financing projects that contribute to a sustainable future.

Community Empowerment Through Blockchain Technology

Blockchain technology holds great potential for empowering communities, particularly those that are marginalized or affected by systemic challenges. By enabling secure and transparent systems, blockchain can deliver tools that foster greater autonomy and economic participation.

One of the core ways blockchain empowers communities is through the creation of decentralized applications (dApps) that can operate free from central control, giving communities the ability to manage their affairs without external interference. These dApps can be used for a variety of purposes, from administering community funds to managing local voting systems.

Blockchain also facilitates the formation of collective identities and reputations without the need for traditional institutional frameworks. This aspect is crucial for groups that lack official recognition or are underserved by existing systems, as it allows them to build trust and engage in peer-to-peer transactions or crowdfunding initiatives.

Moreover, by offering a platform for tokenization, communities can generate their own digital currencies or tokens that can be used to incentivize certain behaviors, fund local projects, or create a shared economy, further enhancing the economic opportunities within the community.

In essence, blockchain technology can be a powerful catalyst for social change, providing communities with the resources they need to shape their own sustainable and equitable futures.

Regulatory Compliance: LCX AG's Role in Sustainable Blockchain Practices

Regulatory compliance plays a critical role in the adoption and maturation of sustainable blockchain practices. LCX AG, a pioneering company within the blockchain industry, stands as a prime example of a regulated blockchain platform paving the way for compliant and sustainable operations.

Based in Liechtenstein, LCX AG is focused on providing a regulated framework for digital assets, combining the benefits of blockchain technology with the assurances of traditional financial markets. Compliance with regulators such as the Financial Market Authority Liechtenstein (FMA) ensures that LCX AG adheres to strict guidelines related to investor protection, due diligence, and transparency.

LCX AG's commitment to regulatory compliance means that the company operates within a structure that promotes stability and sustainability in the blockchain sector. This is essential for fostering trust among investors and users who are increasingly concerned with the ethical implications of their investments, including the environmental and social impact.

Incorporating sustainable practices within a regulated framework, as demonstrated by LCX AG, is indicative of the blockchain industry’s progression towards more responsible models of operation. This approach is likely to attract a wider base of users and investors who prioritize sustainability and accountability in their blockchain engagements.

Blockchain for Eco-Conscious Futures: 5 Key Questions Answered

What is the significance of blockchain in achieving sustainability?

Blockchain can significantly contribute to sustainability by increasing transparency, traceability, and efficiency in various systems. It enables secure and indisputable tracking of resources, energy consumption, and supply chains, which can facilitate responsible consumption and production practices.

How can blockchain technology reduce environmental impact?

With blockchain, processes that traditionally require a lot of paper-based records, such as supply chain management, can be digitized, reducing waste. The adoption of energy-efficient consensus mechanisms like Proof of Stake (PoS) can also minimize blockchain networks' energy consumption and carbon footprint.

In what ways is blockchain being used for sustainable development?

Blockchain is being used to enhance the transparency of carbon credit markets, support the adoption of renewable energies, verify the ethical sourcing in supply chains, and underpin financial inclusivity through decentralized finance that can address various economic disparities.

Can blockchain help with renewable energy distribution?

Yes, blockchain can facilitate the distribution of renewable energy through smart grids that allow for accurate and transparent recording of energy production and consumption. It supports peer-to-peer energy trading platforms where producers can sell excess energy directly to consumers.

What are the challenges of implementing blockchain for sustainability?

While blockchain holds promise for sustainability, it faces challenges like high energy consumption of Proof of Work (PoW) protocols, scalability issues, technological complexity, potential e-waste, and regulatory uncertainties that must be addressed to maximize its sustainable potential.

Your opinion on this article

Please enter a valid email address.
Please enter a comment.
No comments available

Article Summary

Blockchain sustainability focuses on using blockchain technology to support eco-friendly initiatives, with an emphasis on reducing environmental impacts and creating transparent systems for conservation. The article discusses the energy consumption of different consensus mechanisms like PoW and PoS, Ethereum's shift to a more sustainable PoS system, PwC's framework for measuring blockchain's environmental impact, and Stellar Network's approach to achieving carbon neutrality.

The best stock exchanges in comparison

We have compared the best crypto exchanges for you. Just take a look at our free crypto exchange provider comparison.

Already thought about the tax for your coins?

We have compared the leading crypto tax tool providers for you. Check out our free crypto tax tool provider comparison.

The Best Bitcoin Mining Providers at a Glance

» Infinity Hash

From our perspective, currently the best mining provider on the market. With the community concept, you participate in a mining pool completely managed by professionals. A portion of the earnings are used for expansion and maintenance. We've never seen this solved as cleanly anywhere else.

» Hashing24

A well-known and established cloud hosting company. With a good entry point and in a good market phase, a good ROI can also be generated with some patience. Unfortunately, we see the durations as a major drawback.